The Uganda Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (UPHIA) 2016-2017 was a nationally
representative, cross-sectional, population-based survey of households across Uganda. UPHIA focused on
measuring key biological endpoints to provide direct estimates of HIV infection, risk, and burden and of
the effectiveness and population-level impact of the HIV-related prevention, care, and treatment
interventions implemented in the country. Its primary objectives were to estimate the national-level
annual HIV incidence among adults (defined as those aged 15-64 years in this survey), and the national
and subnational prevalence of HIV and HIV viral load (VL) suppression (VLS) (defined as less than 1,000
copies per milliliter [mL]) among HIV-positive adults. In addition, UPHIA measured CD4 counts,
antiretroviral (ARV) drugs in blood, transmitted HIV drug resistance, pediatric HIV and VLS prevalence,
prevalence of syphilis and hepatitis B in adults, and progress toward the 90-90-90 targets as defined by
the Joint United Nations (UN) Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS). The survey also collected information
on behaviors associated with HIV acquisition and transmission, common HIV co-morbidities, and other
health conditions.